A Containment chamber is a type of device to hold varying types of objects.
Used by nearly every technological species, these devices are often composed of some super strong materials to prevent being damaged by chemical, biological, and in some cases energy-based means. Containment chambers are tailored to handle whatever they are designed to hold.
Terran versions are the most rudimentary types, but still capable of doing their primary function. Usually found in science facilities and vessels, they are composed of Neosteel alloys, Plexiglas, and in some cases energy shielding. These are capable of restraining most strains of Zerg. They have limited success with alien artifacts, but some of the more mysterious ones are only barely able to prevent emissions of exotic energies.
Some require additional equipment such as auxiliary power generators and possibly weapons to stun or kill whatever they contain in the event of power loss (XCOM: Enemy Unknown: Alien Containment). This is generally effective against low level strains of zerg until something causes them to evolve.
Protoss versions are among the most advanced. They mostly utilize plasma shield technology, but are still incapable of holding the most ancient of artifacts. Some speculate that the ones they do contain are semi-sentient and are only letting themselves be held.
Civilian versions have been used to accommodate certain types of flora and fauna necessary for colonization. These are not as powerful as military and science grade variants, because the organisms pose little threat to even low level warriors.
Xel'Naga versions are by far the most powerful. They are composed of exotic materials, Hardlight, and psionic technologies. For large organisms and objects, their scientists could convert them into energy forms and store them for later study. Even semi-sentient energy beings with the power of a cosmic storm could by restrained for eternity in a Xel'Naga Containment chamber (Ghostbusters: Containment Unit; Stargate - Atlantis: Containment vessel).