The Lodestar is a type of Terran satellite used to help relay information on warp space travel.
They were developed and deployed during the early stages of colonization in the Koprulu Sector. Lodestar satellites mainly helped in augmenting the guidance systems of early warp capable vessels and real-time communication across interstellar distances (Star Trek - Enterprise: Subspace amplifier). Without them, ships risked becoming stranded in different star systems, inside asteroid belts, or worse (pirate ambush).
During the Guild Wars, many government and pirate factions took control of Lodestar for their strategic value. Whole armadas and convoys of military and civilian vessels have disappeared through the use of hijacked beacons. After the Guild Wars ended, it was decreed that any attempt to modify or destroy any of the beacons is considered a Capital Offense by all remaining Terran governments.
Though Adjutants and interstellar navigation equipment have advanced considerably, Lodestar beacons are still used to help cut down the time in calculating jumps to several systems.